Amoxicillin is an antibiotic of the penicillin group which has a broad spectrum of action. It inhibits the activity of harmful bacteria to the human body, such as staphylococcus, streptococcus, and many others. The drug is available for sale in Canadian Health&Care Mall.
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Amoxicillin kills these microbes, acting on the walls of their cells. However, the drug is degraded in the body under the influence of the enzyme penicillinase (beta-lactamase). Not all bacteria are susceptible to the effects of the antibiotic, there are those that remain insensitive to its influence. The drug was synthesized by the explorers of British company “Beecham” in 1960. 12 years later (the period of clinical trials) the drug at a dosage of 500 mg went on sale. The antibiotic became the second semi-synthetic penicillin drug after Ampicillin, developed in 1961. Today we can say for sure that the achievements of Amoxicillin are huge: even 42 years later the antibiotic is still used worldwide. The World Health Organization has included this drug in the list of essential medicines that are needed in the health system. Often pediatricians prefer the old but reliable antibiotic.
- Film-coated tablets of white or light yellow color, oval, biconvex, scored on both sides;
- Active ingredients: amoxicillin, amoxicillin trihydrate;
- Other ingredients: magnesium stearate, polyvidone, sodium starch glycolate, microcrystalline cellulose;
- Film coating composition: titanium dioxide, talc, hypromellose.
Indications for Use
Amoxicillin pills are used in the following cases:
- Treatment of infections caused by microbes;
- lower respiratory tract infections (acute and chronic bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, lobar pneumonia);
- acute and chronic infections of the gastrointestinal tract, biliary tract infections (peritonitis, cholecystitis, intestinal infections);
- acute and chronic infections of the urinary system (pyelonephritis, urethritis, gonorrhea);
- suppurative soft tissue infections;
- upper respiratory tract infection (tonsillitis, pharyngitis).
The pharmacological effect of penicillins is based on their ability to break the cell wall synthesis of susceptible bacteria. The spectrum of pharmacological activity of generic Amoxicillin is wide. The microorganisms that are sensitive to the drug include: aerobic gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci; gram-negative pathogens gonorrhea, E. coli, Shigella, Salmonella, and Klebsiella;
- Aerobic gram-negative bacteria: Helicobacter pylori, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitides, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenza, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Klebsiella spp.;
- Aerobic gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp.
The prevalence of resistant strains varies geographically, so it is advisable to focus on local information on the drug resistance, particularly when treating severe infections. With this level of the drug resistance, the drug efficiency may be questioned. The best way to treat certain infections is to seek professional help.
The absorption is fast, high (about 93%), food intake has no effect on the absorption, the drug is not destroyed in the acid environment of the stomach. With 2-fold Amoxicillin dosage increase, the concentration is also increased 2 times. Distribution and Metabolism
- The drug has a large volume of distribution: in the high concentrations – found in plasma, sputum, bronchial secretions (in suppurative bronchial secretions the distribution is weak), pleural and peritoneal fluid, urine contents skin blisters, lung tissue, intestinal mucosa, female genital organs, prostate gland, middle ear fluid, bone, adipose tissue, gallbladder (normal liver functioning), fetal tissues. The concentration in the bile exceeds the plasma concentration 2-4 times.
- Amoxicillin poorly penetrates the blood-brain barrier, concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid at inflammation of the meninges (meningitis) is about 20%. The link to plasma proteins is about 17%.
- Partially metabolized with inactive metabolites forms.
The clearance makes 1-1.5 hours. 50-70% drug is recovered by kidneys through tubular secretion (80%) and glomerular filtration rate (20%), liver – 10-20%. The small amount is excreted in breast milk. The half-life period in premature, infants and children up to 6 months – 3-4 hours. In the case of renal function violation (creatinine clearance is less or equal to 15 ml/min), the half-life period is increased up to 8,5 hours. Amoxicillin is removed by hemodialysis.
When Amoxicillin is NOT Applied
One of the major problems of modern medicine is the lack of proper control over the release of prescription drugs. Until now, most pharmacies offer a lot of drugs without a prescription. It is noteworthy, that about 70% of unauthorized antibiotics use is not justified. A special case of unjustified use of the drug is a viral infection, as antibiotics have absolutely NO effect on the virus. Meanwhile, the majority of seasonal diseases are not related to bacteria. What diseases have initially viral origin? This, of course, influenza and ARI (acute respiratory infection). In addition, the majority of pharyngitis, rhinitis, tracheitis, and bronchitis are also caused by different viruses. That is why often we do not see the effect after taking antibiotics for these diseases. So, Amoxicillin, like any other antibacterial drug from Canadian Pharmacy Mall, is not used for viral infection. But it is difficult to distinguish between diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. Sometimes even the doctor can not differentiate these pathogens. As a result, we observe a growing number of unjustified antibiotics use, and at the same time, there appear new drug-resistant bacteria.